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Osteoporosis References

Geisinger Osteoporosis Program References

Newman ED, Lloyd T, Starkey R, Conroy P, Horwith M:  Osteoporosis Clinical Practice Guideline.  Penn State Geisinger Health System. 1998.
Newman ED, Welter R:  Osteoporosis Disease Management:  A Neglected Opportunity.  Decision Resources 1999;3:1-12.

Newman ED, Ayoub W, Hanus P, Diehl J, Starkey R, Gutknecht D, Davis C, Neuner M:  Osteoporosis Clinical Practice Guideline – 2nd Edition.  Geisinger Health System 2000;1-24.

Newman ED, Starkey RH, Ayoub W, Davis C, Diehl J, Hanus P, Wood CG, Frey C:  Osteoporosis Disease Management:  Best Practices from the Penn State Geisinger Health System.  J Clin Outcomes Man 2000;7(5):23-28.

Newman ED, Hanus P. Improved Bone Health Behavior Using Community Pharmacists As Educators: The Geisinger Health System Community Pharmacist Osteoporosis Education Program.  Disease Management and Health Outcomes 2001;9(6):329-335.

Newman ED, Ayoub WT, Wood C: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis – demographic analysis of at risk patients, diagnosis, and treatment in a rural primary care population.  Arthritis Rheum 2001:44(9):S314.

Newman ED, Ayoub WT, Starkey RH, Wood C: The Geisinger Health System Osteoporosis Disease Management Program:  significant improvement in diagnosis, treatment, and fracture rate and reduction in cost after 4 years.  Arthritis Rheum 2001:44(9):S1604.

Newman ED, Ayoub WT, Starkey RH, Diehl JM, Wood GC: Osteoporosis Disease Management in a rural health care population: hip fracture reduction and reduced costs in postmenopausal women after 5 years.  Osteoporos International 2003;14:146-151.

Newman ED, Olenginski TP, Hummel JT, Indeck CA, Wood GC.  Improving osteoporosis diagnosis in rural-based patients using a mobile DXA program.  J Clin Densitom 2003;6:182.

Newman ED, Ayoub WT, Matzko CK, Wood C.  Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis – significant improvement in bisphosphonate use utilizing standardized consultative DXA reporting.  Arthritis Rheum 2003:48:S499.

Newman ED: A schema for effective osteoporosis management – outcomes of the Geisinger Health System Osteoporosis Program.  Dis Manage Health Outcomes 2003;11:611-616.

Newman ED, Olenginski TP, Perruquet JL, Hummel J, Indeck C, Wood GC. Using Mobile DXA to improve access to osteoporosis care.  J Clin Densitom 2004;7:71-75.

Olenginski TP, Newman ED, Hummel JL, Hummer M.  Implementation and evaluation of vertebral fracture using instant vertebral assessment.  Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:S291.

Newman ED, Bryan-Smith L, Shapiro L.  Referring physician relationship excellence: if you build it, they will come.  Arthritis Rheum 2004:50:S661.

Newman ED, Matzko CK, Ayoub WT, Olenginski TP.  Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis program (GIOP) – development and implementation of a novel care model to improve osteoporosis outcomes at a population level.  Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:S664.

Newman ED, Matzko CK, Olenginski TP, Perruquet JL, Harrington TM, Wood GC, Culp T.  GIOP: Comprehensive Care with Improved Outcomes.  Arthritis Rheum 2005 52:S408.

Newman ED, Olenginski TP, Perruquet JL, Hummer J, Hummel M.  At your service – implementation of a Mobile DXA Program to improve access to osteoporosis testing.  Arthritis Rheum 2005 52:S408.

Olenginski TP, Newman ED, Hummel J, Hummer M. Development and Evaluation of a Vertebral Fracture Assessment Program using Instant Vertebral Assessment (IVA) and its Integration with Mobile DXA.  J Clin Densitom 2005 (accepted for publication).

Other Guidelines and Position Statements

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists:
AACE Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Prevention and Management of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: with Selected Updates for 2003. (.pdf) Endocrine Practice 2003; 9(6):544-564.

National Osteoporosis Foundation:
Osteoporosis: review of the evidence for prevention, diagnosis and treatment and cost-effectiveness analysis (executive summary). Osteoporosis Int. 1998; 8(Suppl 4):S3-S6.

Surgeon General’s Report:
Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A report of the Surgeon General.

Vitamin D

Reginster J.  The high prevalence if inadequate vitamin D levels and implications for bone health.  Current Med Research and Opinion 2005;21:579-586
Hickey L, Gordon CM.  Vitamin D deficiency: new perspectives on an old disease.  Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes 2004;11:18-25.
Holick MF, Siris ES, et al.  Prevalence of Vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:3215-3224.
Glucocorticoid Induced Osteoporosis

Curtis JR, Westfall AO, et al.  Longitudinal patterns in the prevention of osteoporosis in glucocorticoid-treated patients.  Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:2485-2494.
Cohen D, Adachi JD.  Review – treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.  J Steroid Biochem Molec Biology 2004;88:337-349
Matzko CK, Newman ED, Perruquet JL, Olenginsk TP, Harrington TM, Wood GC, Culp T.  GIOP: Comprehensive Care with Improved Outcomes.  Arthritis Rheum 2005 52:S408.
Vertebral Fracture Assessment

Olenginski TP, Newman ED, Hummel J, Hummer M. Development and Evaluation of a Vertebral Fracture Assessment Program using Instant Vertebral Assessment (IVA) and its Integration with Mobile DXA.  J Clin Densitom 2005 (accepted for publication).

Ross PD, Davis JW, Epstein RS, Wasnich RD.  1991 Pre-existing fractures and  bone mass predict vertebral fracture incidence in women.  Ann Intern Med 114:919-923.

Genant HK, Li J, Wu CY, Shepherd JA 2000 Vertebral fractures in osteoporosis: A new method for clinical assessment. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 3(3):281-290

Greenspan SL, van Stetten E, Emond EK, Jones L, Parker RA. 2001 Instant vertebral assessment: A noninvasive dual X-ray absorptiometry technique to avoid misclassification and clinical management of osteoporosis. Journal of Clinical Densitometry 4(4):373-380.

Rea JA, Blake GM, Sterger P, Genant HK, Fogelman I. 2000 Visual assessment of vertebral deformity by x-ray absorptiometry: A highly predictive method to exclude vertebral deformity. Osteoporosos Int 11:660-668.       

Ross PD. 1996 Osteoporosis: frequency, consequences and risk factors. Arch Med 156:1399-1411.

Dubboeuf F, bauer DC, Chapurlat RD et al.  Assessment of vertebral fracture using densitometric morphometry.  J Clin Densitom 2005;8:362-368.


Black, DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, et al. (Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group). Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Lancet. 1996; 1535-1541.

Black, DM, Thompson DE, Bauer DC, et al. Fracture risk reduction with alendronatae in women with osteoporosis: the Fracture Intervention Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:4119-4124.

Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, et al. Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results form the Fracture Intervention Trial. JAMA. 1998;280:2077-2082.

Liberman UA, Weiss SR, Broll J, et al. (Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group). Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1437-1443.

Orwell E, Ettinger M, et al. Alendronate for the treatment of osteoporosis in men. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:604-610.

Pols HA, Felsenberg D, Hanley DA, et al. Multinational, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of alendronate on bone density and fracture risk in posmenopausal women with low bone mass: results of the FOSIT study. Osteoporosis Int. 1999;9:461-468.

Saag KG, Emkey R, Schnitzer TJ, et al. (Glucocorticoid Induced Osteoporosis Study Group). Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:292-299.

Schnitzer T, Bone HG, Crepaldi G, et al. (Alendronate Once-Weekly Study Group). Therapeutic equivalence of alendronate 70 mg once-weekly and alendronate 10 mg daily in the treatment of osteoporosis. Aging (Milano). 2000;12:1-12.

Tonino RP, Meunier PJ, Emkey R, et al. Skeletal benefits of alendronate: 7-year treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:3109-3115.


Cohen S, Levy RM, Keller M, et al. Risedronate therapy prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss: a twelve-month, multi-center,randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42:2309-2318.

Fogelman I, Ribot C, et al. Risedronate reverses bone loss in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: results from a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:1895-1900.

Harris ST, Watts NB, Genant HK, et al. (Vertebral Efficacy With Risedronate [VERT] Study Group). Effects of risedronate treatment on vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999;282:1344-1352.

McClung MR, Geusens P, Miller PD, et al. (Hip Intervention Program Study Group). Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:333-340.

Reginster JY, Minne HW, Sorensen OH, et al. (Vertebral Efficacy With Risedronate Therapy [VERT] Study Group). Randomized trial of the effects of risedronate on vertebral fractures in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Int. 2000;11:83-91.

Reid DM, Hughes RA, Laan RF, et al. Efficacy and safety of daily risedronate in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in men and women: a randomzed trial; European Corticosteroid-Induced Osteoporosis Treatment Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:1006-1013.


Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, et al. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1434-1441.


Chesnut CH, Ettinger MP, Miller PD, et al. Ibandronate produces significant, similar antifracture efficacy in North American and European women: new clinical findings from BONE.  Current Medical Research & Opinion 2005;21:391-401.

Chesnut III CH, Skag A, Christiansen C, et al.  Oral Ibandronate Osteoporosis Vertebral Fracture Trial in North America and Europe (BONE). Effects of oral ibandronate administered daily or intermittently on fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research 2004; 19:1241-9, 2004 A

Delmas PD, Recker RR, Chesnut CH 3rd et al.  Daily and intermittent oral ibandronate normalize bone turnover and provide significant reduction in vertebral fracture risk: results from the BONE study. Osteoporosis International 2004;15):792-8.

McClung MR, Wasnich RD, Recker R, et al. Oral Ibandronate Study Group. Oral daily ibandronate prevents bone loss in early postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research 2004;19:11-8


Delmas PD, Bjarnason NH, Mitlak BH, et al. Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1641-1647.

Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH, et al. (Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation [MORE] Investigators). Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 1999;282:637-645.

Intranasal Calcitonin

Chestnut CH III, Silverman S, Andriano K, et al. (PROOF Study Group). A randomized trial of nasal spray salmon calcitonin in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis: the Prevent Recurrence of Osteoporosis Fractures Study. Am J Med. 2000;109:267-276.
Combination Pharmacologic Therapy

Lindsay R, Cosman F, Lobo RA, et al. Addition of alendronate to ongoing hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:3076-3081.

Ravn P, Bidstrup M, Wasnich RD, et al. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss: four-year results from the early postmenopausal intervention cohort study; a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Int Med. 1999;131:935-942.


Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al.  Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.  JAMA 2002; 288:321-33

Anderson, GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al.  Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy:  the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.  JAMA 2004;291:1701-12

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Hormone Therapy for the Prevention of Chronic Conditions in Postmenopausal Women: Recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.  Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:855-60

Hip Protectors

Kannus, P, Parkkari, J, Niemi, S, et al. Prevention of hip fracture in elderly people with use of a hip protector. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1506-1513.

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