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Diagnosis & Treatment

Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism—Evaluation and Treatment

Geisinger specialists perform a complete workup to determine the complexity of each person’s diabetic condition:

  • Blood glucose testing over a three-month period
  • Regular blood pressure monitoring
  • Cholesterol monitoring at key intervals
  • Eye exam
  • Foot/circulatory check


Geisinger’s comprehensive diabetes program offers:

  • Insulin and oral therapies to control blood sugar and complications
  • Eye and foot care (for circulatory complications)
  • One-on-one education and management training for those with complications (link to diabetes education program page)
  • Diabetes support group
  • Research and access to clinical trials

Advanced management techniques used by our endocrinologists include:

  • Insulin pump therapy
  • Continuous glucose sensors
  • 24/7 monitoring provides personal readings on the spot and also sends readings electronically to your endocrinologist
  • Multiple daily injections
  • Insulin management

Thyroid and Hormone Disorders

Since thyroid and hormone functions are similar and complex, specialists will evaluate the complexity of your condition with testing such as:

  • Blood test
  • Chest X-ray
  • EKG
  • Ultrasound biopsy of thyroid nodule


Treatment for thyroid and other metabolic conditions varies from individual to individual. Armed with the most precise diagnosis, specialists may recommend:

  • Hormone replacement or stimulus medication
  • Radioactive iodine
  • Surgery to remove thyroid gland

Is it cancer?

Geisinger’s endocrinologists are the only specialists in the region to test for thyroid cancer using ultrasound biopsies. And a cytologist (laboratory specialist) is always present to provide an immediate, expert reading of the results.