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Pediatric neurology

If your child is experiencing a neurological disorder, you want to make sure they receive treatment from the most skilled and capable team. Our pediatric neurology specialists pair innovative treatments with compassion and expertise to provide world-class pediatric neurological care.

What is a pediatric neurologist?

Pediatric neurology is a specialty that provides care for infants and children for conditions involving the brain, spinal cord, muscles and nerves. Our team relies on the latest treatment options and technologies so your child gets advanced care, close to where they live.

Your child’s pediatric neurology team

From common to complex neurological conditions, our team works together to develop a treatment plan to help your child heal and thrive. Your child will have an entire pediatric neurology team behind them, which consists of:

  • Pediatric neurologists, specialists who help diagnose and treat children with conditions related to their nervous system.
  • Advanced practice providers, including physician assistants and advanced practice registered nurses.
  • Pediatric neurosurgeon, a neurosurgeon who holds advanced training in the care of children. Learn more about pediatric neurosurgery.
  • Neuro-ophthalmology, specialists trained in analyzing and treating the visual symptoms of brain disease. 
  • Psychology and Behavioral Health Services team, to help your child work through their emotional experiences. Learn more about psychology and behavioral health.
  • Nurses, who will assist with your child’s care while they are in for check-ups and appointments.
  • Nutritionists, who will partner with you and your child to create a nutrition plan to help manage and improve their symptoms.Learn more about pediatric nutrition.
  • Case management nurses, who are trained to answer any questions you may have during your child’s care.
  • Pediatric specialty pharmacists, who are specially trained in administering medications that treat children’s disorders and symptoms.
  • Genetics specialists, who can analyze your child’s genes to determine if their symptoms are caused by genetic factors.Learn about MyCode.
  • Sleep medicine specialists, who are trained in diagnosing and treating children’s sleep disorders.

Pediatric neurological conditions and treatments

From diagnosis and treatment to long-term management of your child’s condition, our team provides the care and support your child needs to reach his or her full potential.

Conditions we diagnose and treat include:

  • Cerebral palsy
  • Concussion (non-sports related)
  • Epilepsy
  • Migraines and headaches
  • Muscular dystrophy/spinal muscular atrophy
  • Neurogenetic disorders
  • Neuromuscular disorders
  • Conditions we treat through sleep services
  • Spinal muscular disorders
  • Tic disorders

Diagnosing neurological conditions in children

Our neurology team is experienced in diagnosing brain, spinal cord, muscle and nerve conditions affecting children. 

Some of the diagnostic tests your doctor may perform to test for neurological conditions include:
  • Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan: CT scans use X-rays to obtain cross-sectional images of the brain.
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG): A device that uses electrodes (small metal disks) which are placed on your child’s head to continuously read and record brain wave activity. A video is recorded during this test, which is used to evaluate your child for seizure or risk of having seizures.
  • Long term video EEG monitoring: A continual video recording, day and night, is taken in a controlled environment during your child's EEG and used to help determine if your child is having epileptic seizures.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): MRIs use safe, powerful radio waves and magnets to create detailed, 2D images of the brain.
  • Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) scan: MRAs use powerful radio waves and magnets to scan the arteries that go to and through your child’s brain.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan: A PET scan takes pictures of changes in the brain that MRT and CT scans are unable to show. Rather than showing the brain's structure, a PET scan shows a picture of the brain’s activity and how areas of the brain work to metabolize nutrients in comparison to each other. Between 30 minutes and one hour before this test, your child will receive a shot that contains a small (and safe) amount of radioactive molecules. This shot enables a PET scan to take pictures to help form a diagnosis.
  • Electromyogram (EMG)/nerve condition study (NCS): In an electromyogram, small needles record nerve and muscle activity to diagnose weakness in your child’s arms or legs. A nerve condition study is often done in combination with an EMG and evaluates your child's electrical condition abilities and the health of the nerve being tested.
  • Cerebral spinal fluid analysis: Also called a spinal tap or lumbar puncture, this allows your child's doctor to remove fluid from the spine to help make a diagnosis.
  • Evoked potentials (EP): This test uses electrodes (small metal disks) to measure the electrical responses produced by your child’s brain when they respond to stimuli including sight and sound.
  • Polysomnography: Also called a sleep study, this test records your child’s brain waves, eye movement, oxygen levels, breathing, heart rate and leg movements while they sleep. This test helps with diagnosing sleep disorders.
  • Genetic testing: Sending your child's blood samples for analysis can help determine whether they have a genetic-based disorder or disease.

Treating pediatric neurological conditions in PA


Medications, which can help your child manage their symptoms.
Dietary therapy

Dietary therapy such as ketogenic (high-fat, low-carb) diets.

Surgery, such as epilepsy surgery, vagal nerve stimulator or responsive neurostimulation.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, a common form of talk therapy that helps a person understand how they can improve their health and wellbeing.

Immunotherapy, a treatment that involves the use of medicines to help a person's immune system heal. In some cases, intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (IVIg), plasmapheresis and rituximab may be suggested.
Gene therapy

Gene therapy, for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Pediatric neurology care at Geisinger

We want to help your child reach their full potential and live their best life. With compassionate care tailored to your child’s needs, our team will partner with you and your child for life-long care. We offer:
  • Comprehensive Epilepsy Program – Children diagnosed with epilepsy and seizure disorders have the opportunity to work with a team of epilepsy specialists, also called epileptologists. With a Level IV designation from the National Association of Epilepsy Centers, our center offers the highest level of care for your child. We’ll partner with you to create a personalized care plan for your child, which may include medication management, ketogenic diet, genetics evaluation and or recommendations for surgical evaluation or neuromodulation.
  • Specialized headache care – For children up to age 18 who have headaches or migraines, we provide a comprehensive, evidence-based approach through a combination of medicine and lifestyle changes. Your child will also have access to services to manage their symptoms through include diet, physical therapy and behavioral health.
  • Advanced neuromuscular care – Those diagnosed with neuromuscular disease have the opportunity to work with our experienced multidisciplinary care team, a multi-physician team that comes together to create a personalized treatment plan for your child. Our neuromuscular care team consists of neurologists, sleep medicine specialists, pulmonologists, orthopaedic specialists, physical therapists and cardiologists. As a state-recognized spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) referral center, we provide extensive care to children, including disease-modifying treatments.
  • Pediatric Sleep Center – Our specialty team works together to diagnose and treat children’s sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and restless leg syndrome. Your child’s care starts with a comprehensive evaluation, which may include a sleep study in our child-friendly sleep lab, actigraphy (a watch-like device that tracks them while sleeping and awake) or behavioral intervention. Depending on your child's diagnosis, we’ll develop a full treatment plan to help them return to getting a full night’s sleep.
  • Genetic testing and counseling programs – Specials research programs such as MyCode® are only available at Geisinger. Participating in MyCode allows you to contribute to genetic research. By participating, some may receive information about their own genetic risks. Learn more or sign up for MyCode.
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